Atlanta Center For Dermatologic Diseases
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Many conditions affect the human integumentary system, the organ system that covers the entire body’s surface and is made up of skin, hair, nails, and related muscles and glands. The primary function of this system is to be a barrier against the external environment. The skin weighs an average of four kilograms, covers an area of two square meters, and is made up of three different layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue.
The two main types of human skin are hairless skin, hairless skin on the palms and soles of the feet (also known as “palmoplantar” surfaces), and hairy skin. In the latter type, hairs are found in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with a hair follicle, a sebaceous gland, and an associat arrector pili muscle. In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands are form from the ectoderm, which chemically influence by the underlying mesoderm, including the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Atlanta Center For Dermatologic Diseases Of Conditions
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin, a squamous epithelium with several layers: the stratum corneum, the stratum lucid, the stratum granulosa, the stratum spinosum, and the stratum basalis. Food supplied to these layers by diffusion from the dermis since the epidermis lacks a direct blood supply.
The epidermis contains four types of cells: keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and Merkel cells. Of these, keratinocytes are the main component and makeup about 95 percent of the epidermis. This stratified squamous epithelium maintained by cell division within the basal layer, in which differentiating cells slowly move outward through the spinous layer to the stratum corneum, where cells are continually expell from the surface. The production rate equals the loss rate; It takes about two weeks for a cell to migrate from the basal cell layer to the top of the granule cell layer and two weeks to cross the stratum corneum.
The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and the underlying fascia. This tissue can be divid into two components. The actual fat layer, or fat pad, and a deeper vestigial muscle layer, panniculus fleshy. The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte or fat cell. The structure of this tissue made up of septal (that is, linear strands) and lobular compartments. Which differ in their microscopic appearance. Functionally, subcutaneous fat insulates the body, absorbs trauma, and serves as a reserve energy source.
Chronic blistering Atlanta Center For Dermatologic Diseases
Diseases of the human integumentary system constitute a wide range of diseases, also known as dermatoses. And many non-pathological conditions (such as, in some circumstances, melanonychia, and racket nails). While only a small number of skin conditions account for most doctor visits, thousands of skin conditions have been describ. Classifying these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, as the underlying etiologies and pathogenesis are often unknown.
Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (e.g., Mucous membrane disorders), morphology (chronic conditions with blisters), etiology (skin conditions that result from physical factors), etc. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition made by gathering relevant information about the skin lesions present. Including location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (itching, pain), duration (acute or chronic), disposition (solitary, generalized, annular, linear). Morphology (macules, papules, vesicles) and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow). The diagnosis of many conditions often also requires. A skin biopsy that provides histological information that can be correlate with the clinical presentation and all laboratory data.
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